International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
At its 55th regular session, the IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(55)/RES/9, encouraged Member States “to use
safety standards issued by the IAEA in their national regulatory programmes, and noted the need to consider the periodic alignment of national regulations and guidance to internationally established standards and guidance”.
These Standards are also to be applied by the Sponsoring Organizations to their own operations. They are recommended for use by States and national authorities and by other international organizations in relation to their own activities. The application of these Standards by EU member states is ensured by the implementation of binding Euratom legislation. Other States that are member states of the other Sponsoring Organizations may adopt the requirements, at their own discretion, or in accordance with their membership obligations, for application to their own activities.
These Standards are intended for application and use by governmental authorities, including regulatory bodies responsible for authorizing facilities and activities; by organizations operating nuclear facilities, some mining and raw material processing facilities such as uranium mines, radioactive waste management facilities, and any other facilities producing or using radiation sources for industrial, research or medical purposes; by organizations transporting radioactive material; by organizations decommissioning facilities; and by staff and technical and scientific support organizations supporting such organizations and authorities.
Member States also subscribe to international conventions relating to nuclear and radiation related activities conducted within their jurisdiction. The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, the Convention on Nuclear Safety, the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, and the ILO Convention concerning the Protection of Workers against Ionising Radiations, 1960 (No. 115) all place specific obligations on the Contracting Parties. These Basic Safety Standards and other IAEA safety standards constitute a useful tool for Contracting Parties to assess their performance under these international conventions. International conventions and IAEA safety standards, appropriately supplemented by industry standards and detailed national requirements, establish a consistent and comprehensive basis for the proper protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation.
safety standardsはCode of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sourcesの適用をサポートする。この行動規範も法的拘束力は持たないが日本政府は政治的な支持を表明しているところ。
These Standards and other IAEA safety standards also support the application of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, the Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors, and the International Health Regulations, an international instrument that is legally binding on WHO member states.
LEGAL NATURE OF IAEA SAFETY STANDARDS
The statutory basis for the IAEA safety standards is to be found in Article III.A.6 of the Statute. By virtue of that provision the Agency is authorized:
“To establish or adopt, in consultation and, where appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property (including such standards for labour conditions), and to provide for the application of these
standards to its own operations as well as to the operations making use of materials, services, equipment, facilities, and information made available by the Agency or at its request or under its control or supervision; and to provide for the application of these standards, at the request of the parties, to operations under any bilateral or multilateral arrangement, or, at the request of a State, to any of that State’s activities in the field of atomic energy.”
Pursuant to that authorization, the first step in establishing IAEA safety standards was taken when the IAEA Board of Governors, on 31 March 1960, approved the Health and Safety Document: “The Agency’s Safety Standards and Measures” (INFCIRC/18). Thereafter, various safety standards (e.g. the BSS and the IAEA Transport Regulations) were established in accordance with Article III.A.6 and “The Agency’s Safety Standards and Measures” (INFCIRC/18), which was revised in 1975 and approved by the IAEA Board in February 1976 (reproduced in INFCIRC/18/Rev.1).
Paragraph 1 of INFCIRC/18/Rev.1 contains the following relevant definitions:
“1.1 “Safety standards” means standards, regulations, rules or codes of practice established to protect man and the environment against ionizing radiation and to minimize danger to life and property.
“1.2 “The Agency’s safety standards” means safety standards established by the Agency under the authority of the Board of Governors. Such standards comprise:
(a) The Agency’s basic safety standards for radiation protection, which prescribe maximum permissible doses and dose limits;
(b) The Agency’s specialized regulations, which are safety prescriptions relating to particular fields of operation; and
(c) The Agency’s codes of practice, which establish for particular activities the minimum requirements which, in the light of experience and the current state of technology, must be fulfilled to ensure adequate safety.
Codes of practice are, as appropriate, supplemented by safety guides recommending a procedure or procedures that might be followed in implementing them.
“1.3 “Safety measure” means any action, condition or procedure to ensure the observance of safety standards.”
・ALPS treated water
・参考レベル reference level
・共同事実確認 Joint Fact-Finding
・安全 safety, freedom from unacceptable risk
・名目リスク係数（デトリメント調整リスク係数） detriment-adjusted nominal risk coefficient
・ホット・パーティクル hot particle
・子孫核種 progeny nuclide
・余命損失 Loss of life expectancy
・県民健康調査 Fukushima Health Survey
・安定ヨウ素剤 stable iodine tablets
・放射線リスクコミュニケーション 相談員支援センター Support center for social workers engaged in recovery from the nuclear disaster
・不当表示 misleading representation